This recipe will teach you how to cook the perfect Oven Roasted Beer Brined Turkey.
The technique for beer brining a turkey is different than simply marinating or salt curing a meat | poultry product. By submerging a protein (turkey |chicken | Cornish game hens) into this liquid medium, it allows the properties of osmosis to do its work, resulting in flavoring the protein from the inside out. Crafting a liquid with the right balance and ratio of sodium, sugar and flavors (in this case Craft Beer with some herbs and vegetables) becomes the basic Beer Brine medium. The natural moisture in the protein is replaced with flavors of the beer brine that also hydrate the meat, increases the tenderness by denaturing the proteins, helps preserve the ingredient and provides a temperature cushion, preventing the main course from drying out.
There are several ways to cook the finished beer brined turkey. This recipe is for your classic Oven Roasted Beer Brined Turkey. Below this recipe are several links to all the different cooking techniques this base Beer Brined Turkey recipe can be cooked. Other cooking options are: BBQ, Deep Fat Frying, Grilling, Smoking and Sous Vide. This recipe yields enough brine for a 16 – 24 pound turkey. The recipe can be doubled (setting the recipe scale to 32), to make a large batch of brine, that can be used to brine 2 turkeys.
Tips on making the best Oven Roasted Beer Brined Turkey:
After the turkey has been beer brined for the amount of time needed, remove the turkey from the brine at least 2 hours before you plan on cooking it. This will allow time for the turkey to warm up, more evenly than if it was placed into the oven directly from the refrigerated beer brine. This will help raise the internal temperature of the entire bird, requiring less cooking time and making the time it is cooking, more even. As the heat of the oven is radiant heat, the turkey is cooking for the outside in. With the internal temperature at roughly 55°F | 13°C vs 38°F | 3°C, the resulting cooking time will be shortened, helping prevent the turkey from being dry.
When the turkey is removed from the brine, do not rinse it off. Instead place the beer brined turkey onto the roasting rack in the roasting pan.
Using paper towels, dry off the outside and inside the cavity several times, using fresh paper towels each time. The more moisture that is removed, the crisper the skin will become, as the skin will not be steamed, but roasting.
To ensure the best turkey skin possible, place a fan, targeted at the turkey, set to high speed, for two hours, after the bird has been patted dry with paper towels. This method will help air dry the turkey’s skin and help warm the turkey to room temperature.
Alternatively, the turkey can be beer brined earlier, allowing an overnight rest on the roasting rack | pan set into the refrigerator, allowing the turkey to air dry overnight. It is still recommended to let the turkey sit at room temperature for 2 hours prior to being placed into the pre-heated oven.
Double check the oven temperature, whether you have a infrared thermometer or oven thermometer, to ensure your oven temperature is correctly set to 350°F | 177°C.
I have found keeping the oven temperature set to one temperature, verses setting the temperature to 400+ degrees and dropping the temperature after 15 – 30 minutes can increase the chances of over cooking the outside, needed to tent the turkey in aluminum foil. Having one temperature, a close to room temperature bird before it goes into the oven makes a more evenly cooked turkey.
Right before the turkey is placed in the oven, rub the entire skin with 4 tablespoons of room temperature butter, coating all the exposed skin. Then lightly season the outside of the turkey with salt.
Place the turkey into the center of your oven, repositioning the oven racks if needed.
If you have a baking stone or Baking Steel, leave it in the oven. The extra thermomass will help evenly cook the the turkey.
If your oven does not have a convection bake or roast setting, turn the turkey every hour of cooking, to ensure an even cooking from all sides.
Do not add any liquid to the roasting pan, as this will only help steam the turkey, reducing the effort to get the best skin possible. Having a dry heat will help the skin render any fat under the skin, then crisp that skin.
Using a probe style thermometer will help prevent one from having to open and close the oven door. Each time the oven door is opened, heat is lost, slowing the cooking time, changing the heat environment. This will also help ensure the turkey reaches a safe to consume temperature of doneness. Set the temperature probe to a temperature alarm, to go off when the internal temperature reaches 160°F | 71°C.
Pull the beer brined turkey from the oven when the internal temperature reaches 160°F | 71°C, as the heat of the oven and the surface temperature is at 350°F | 177°C, the turkey is cooking for the outside in. Tent the turkey with a large sheet of aluminum foil. As the turkey rests, the carryover heat will finish cooking the turkey and bring it to a safe to eat, final cooking temperature of 165°F | 74°C.
Letting the carryover heat finishing cooking the turkey also helps letting the beer brine turkey rest. This will help equalize the turkey outside and inside temperature, allowing the muscle fibers to relax. This rest step allows the meat to holding onto the beer brine and not have the turkey’s juice run all over the cutting board when carving it. That liquid is what keeps the turkey moist and delicious.
Letting the Oven Roasted Beer Brined Turkey rest also frees up the oven, to cook other items, keep warm others.
Makes: enough Beer Brine for a 16-24 pound turkey, 4 whole chickens or 10 Cornish game hens
At least 2 days in advance of Thanksgiving | event | Holiday, start the brine. In a large pot, over high heat, add the water, salt, sugar, peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, onions, celery, carrots, garlic, lemon and orange. Bring the liquid to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes to infuse the flavors together, dissolving the salt and sugar. Turn off the heat and let the brine cool for 20 minutes, then add in the ice and beer of choice. Mix the ingredients together and take the temperature of the finished brine. A thermometer should read 40°F | 4°C or lower in order to be safe to use. If it is warmer, place the pot into a refrigerator/kegerator until 40°F | 4°C is reached.
Oven Roasted Turkey Preparation:
Take the fresh turkey and remove it from its package in a large sink. Remove the neck, gizzards and liver, setting aside (for stock or gravy). Rinse the bird under cold water, turning the bird over a few times, washing any blood from the cavity and under the neck flap. Remove any remaining quills from the skin, if visible. Remove any excess fat from around the inside cavity. Turn off the water and lightly dry the turkey off with paper towels.
If cold space is an issue, use a large cooler and sanitize it with a bleach water solution (1 tablespoon of bleach per gallon of water or 200ppm) or Star San (1 ounce of StarSan per 2 gallons of water).
Place the cooled beer brine into the now clean cooler and add the turkey. Use several gallon size seal-able bags fill with ice, to keep the bird and brine ice cold, but not diluting the salinity or flavor of the brine. This will also work if you are beer brining multiple turkeys at once and have doubled or tripled the beer brine recipe to fill the cooler size you are using.
If you are using a Ziploc XL HD Big Bag hold the bringing liquid and bird, place the sealed bagged turkey in the cooler and surround the bag with ice, to keep the turkey and brine ice cold.
Beer brine the turkey for at least 24 (for a smaller bird 16 pound) to 48 hours (for a larger 22+ pound bird). Keep the turkey and brine cold during this marinating process. Every 12 hours, rotate/flip the turkey in the brine to evenly marinate it.
Preparing the Finished Beer Brined Turkey for Cooking:
Remove the turkey from the brine and dry well with paper towels, both inside and out. Repeat this several times, to get as much of the moisture removed. This will help the browning of the skin, as moisture will steam the skin instead of roast it. Place the turkey, back side down, in a roasting pan fitted with a rack. Place the bunch of sage inside the cavity, as the herbs will release their aroma into the meat as it roasts. Let the turkey sit at room temperature for 2 hours prior to being cooked. This will let the turkey warm up, allowing it to cook more evenly. Discard the brine, as it has done its purpose and not safe to re-use.
Under the Skin Preparation:
With the beer brine, the turkey is fine to cook, once it is dried. To add extra flavor and decoration for when the turkey is served, you can dress up the turkey with some flavor bling. Using your finger tips, start at the neck and slide one finger inside the neck skin and start separating the skin from the meat. Gradually add a second finger to finally your whole hand (that is pressed flat against the breast meat), being very careful not to force, but separate the skin from the meat, as the skin can tear. Repeat this same process with the other breast. Once this is done, move to the open cavity and on one side of the turkey start separating the skin from the leg/thigh, working around the thigh to the leg. Repeat this process for the other leg.
Now that the skin is loose, the turkey can be stuffed with herbs, rubs or bacon to add additional flavor to the turkey. And when the turkey cooks, the skin will display the garnish, creating a beautiful finished bird.
Herbs: Try using a mix of fresh herbs like thyme, bay leaves, rosemary, marjoram and/or oregano. Arrange the herbs in a pattern under the skin on each breast. Copy the pattern to the opposite breast to give the finish turkey symmetry when being presented. Use herbs to wrap around the legs and thighs too, creating a unique pattern with what herbs you have. A good tip is to start at the farthest part from you and work towards where you are stuffing from.
Bacon: cured, smoked and sliced pork belly is another great option, as the fat of the bacon renders as the turkey cooks, adding another layer of protection from the breast meat drying out. I like to use a thick cut bacon, that has been smoked. Arrange the strips of bacon alongside of the chest bone and but each strip right next to the last, working your way down the breast. Cut the bacon if it is too long with kitchen sears to fit. Then repeat on the opposite side of the turkey. For the leg/thighs, wrap the bacon around the legs, then continue with the thighs, creating a pin wheel effect. Press the skin down to remove any air pockets and help secure the bacon from sliding.
Rubs: Since the turkey has been brined, seasoning the bird from the inside out, additional flavors should be just that, herbs and spices, not salts. If you have a favorite rub, check to see how much salt is used. Many commercial rubs use a lot of salt as a filler, as it is cheaper than the herbs and spices. Sprinkle the rub mix under the skin, creating an even coating on each side. Mixing the rub with some olive oil or room temperature unsalted butter to create a flavor paste can also be done, again giving the breast meat additional fat to help keep the meat moist and juicy as it cooks.
Over the Skin Preparation:
Remember that the turkey has been seasoned with the brine. Once the skin has been dried thoroughly, you can brush/rub oil (such as olive oil or vegetable oil) all over the skin to help create a wonderful crisp skin, or use room temperature unsalted butter to create a light coat of fat. Very lightly season the skin with salt and pepper if you wish.
A rub can also be used to create multiple flavors. A Cajun spice rub, fresh herb rub or jerk spice can be used to give the turkey a culinary field trip. Be careful of the salt content of the rub, if you are using a commercial made rub, as salt is cheaper than herbs and spices.
Oven Roasted Beer Brined Turkey Directions:
Pre-heat the oven to 350°F | 177°C, convection roast | bake if this setting is an option.
Truss the bird with kitchen twine, to help hold its shape and to aid in cooking the turkey evenly. I highly recommend using a probe thermometer to make sure the turkey is cooked to a certain temperature (160°F | 71°C) verses a length of time. Insert the probe into the middle of a breast or in one of the thighs. Make sure the tip of the probe isn’t touching a bone, as the temperature reading could be false.
If you don’t have a probe thermometer, a 16 - 20 pound turkey should take between 3 and 3 1/2 hours to fully cook to 160°F | 71°C. Check both the breast and the thigh temperature to make sure the turkey is evenly cooked. Other recipes describe cooking a turkey until the internal temperature reaches 180°F | 82°C and this is one reason for a dry turkey.
Turkey is safe to eat after it reaches 165°F | 74°C. It's fine to remove the turkey from the oven at 160°F | 71°C, as the heat of the oven and the surface temperature is higher than the internal temperature. As the turkey rests, the carryover heat will finish cooking the turkey and bring it to a safe final cooking temperature of 165°F | 74°C.
Let the turkey rest at room temperature for 30 - 45 minutes before carving. This is critical in keeping a moist and juicy turkey. This resting will relax the muscle fibers, helping re-distribute the juices and allow the bird to be easier to handle when carving. Cover the turkey with a large sheet of aluminum foil.